Evolution and Development of Transport: In the past people were unable to travel long distances as they had to walk but the invention of the wheel made journeys easy. Use of cart with the help of pet animals to pull it, increased efficiency as animals could take more load and also reduced the travel time. Horses and oxen were common animals used in pulling carts which helped people to find new places of interest.
1. Road Transport
As per the historical evidences, the first roads were constructed by the Mesopotamians. Stagecoaches were first made in Hungary in fifteen century A.D. and started regular services. Henry Ford introduced famous automobile name Model T in 1908 A.D. The first good road network was constructed in 1920 in USA.
In twentieth century, railway and steamships were considered as very popular modes of transportation. Availability of car and coaches helped in reaching destinations in quick time. However, these were not preferred for long-haul transfers. Later national and international highways were built in the North America and Europe which helped rapid growth in road traffic. Large highway construction also made long haul travel popular. In 1930, Germany became the leader in the development of motorways.
Rail travel became comfortable and economic mode of transportation just after its introduction. It was introduced in England in 1825 and started regular services five years later. First train was run between Manchester and Liverpool. Railway track was built in US in between 1826 to 1840 which is known as first railway track in the world.
The introduction of train made travel easy and safe for the tourists and affordable for middle-class to travel both long and short route journey. The father of modern travel trade Thomas Cook organized a train tour from Leicester to Loughborough in England in 1841. France got its first railway in 1863 and very soon expanded up to Monte Carlo in Monaco. Thus a gambling casino was built in 1868 that became very popular instantly in a short time.
Evolution and Development of Transport
3. Air Transport
Deutsche Lufthansa started first ever flight in Germany in 1903 on Berlin – Leipzig Weimar route. Charles A. Levine was the first international and transatlantic passenger travelled between New York to Germany on 7 June 1927. In 1926, the first US airline Launched with the name of Varney Airlines but operated after 11 days when Western airline started services on 17 April 1926. The first mile carried flight run between Florida to Havana, Cuba in on 28 October 1927 and also took the same passenger on same route on 16 January 1928. But air travel was popularized by airline DC-3 and Boeing 314 a Transoceanic Clipper.
British-French joint venture product named Concord was the first high speed aircraft and was developed in 1967 and its first flight started in 1969. In India air services started with the efforts of J.R.D. Tata before independence of India. Immediately after the independence, Indian government took over Tata Airlines to provide domestic and International air services. Tata Airlines were founded in 1932 and the name was changed to Air India and Indian Airlines after the takeover by the government.
4. Water Transport
It is evident from the historical findings that first dockyard was found in Lothal Gujarat, India. The evidences revealed that ship building was known to Indians as early as 2400 B.C. But the Phoenicians are considered to be pioneers in the ship making activities. They purchased spice and perfume from the east and lines and papyrus from Egypt. Greek became the next sea hitters after Phoenicians. Many sea hitters traveled round the world and found sea route to different places during the medieval period.
America’s sea route was discovered by Christopher Columbus and he is also credited with having named West Indies. Portuguese were also the great sailors. India’s sea route was discovered by Vasco Da Gama in 1498 as he reached India at Calicut in Kerala in the West Coast. Water transport was first introduced in England in 1772, which was an organized transport system. In Clyde, Avon and Thames rivers services of steamboat were popularized in 1815.
Also read Needs, Wants and Demands in Tourism
Evolution and Development of Transport