We can see that the way people define tourism and travel history depends very much on their own perspective. When most people think of tourism they think about travel. Not all forms of travel involve tourism, but tourism always involves travel.

According to the United Nations World Tourism Organization, tourism can be defined as “the activities of people traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes” Tourism is about much more than holidays in exotic destinations. To understand tourism we also have to ask:“Who are the tourists?”

Travel History

We can divide all travelers into two groups- visitors and other travelers such as commuters, migrants, diplomats and refugees. The UNWTO, defines a tourist simply as “a visitor who spends at least one night away from home.” Visitors who spend less than a night away from home are called excursionists or day trippers. We can also differentiate between international tourists who cross international borders during their travels – and domestic tourists – those who travel around their own country.

When we think about travel we often think about travel to exotic locations overseas. But for many destinations domestic tourism is often more important than international tourism. In Queensland domestic tourists account for around three quarters of all tourism consumption. We can further organised tourists into leisure travelers, business travelers and those who visit a place for other reasons, such as visiting friends and relatives, education and sport. Where do these tourists come from and where do they go?

We know from statistics collected by the UNWTO that in 2016 the top five largest source markets in the world included China, the USA, Germany, the United Kingdom and France. This map shows major international passenger flows. The line width indicates the volume of traffic between regions while the dot size indicates the volume of traffic within a region.

Not everyone travels by air of course, but this graphic still highlights interesting patterns, particularly the large movements of travelers between North America, Europe and North Asia. We can also see that four out of five tourists worldwide are travelling within their own region. Where do all these tourists go?

Most tourists go to European countries, but Asian destinations are becoming increasingly popular. In 2016 the top five destinations in the world included France, the United States, Spain, China and Italy. Almost 30% of all international visitors went to these five countries in 2016. Why is tourism important? Well, let’s face it, most of us love going on holiday!

Holidays take us to exotic locations, are fun and exciting, provide opportunities to rest and relax and are the perfect way to spend time with friends and family. But tourism is so much more than that! Tourism is important because it influences the way we think, work and play. As you may have guessed already, tourism is huge! In fact, it is often called the world’s largest industry.

Unlike many other industries, tourism has grown almost every year since 1950 and shows no signs of slowing down. The UNWTO predicts that by 2030, international visitor arrivals will surpass 1.8 billion. But statistics on international visitor arrivals are just one part of the picture. Globally, it is estimated that there are between five and six billion domestic trips each year. Tourism generates and supports a vast network of jobs and industries.

On average, tourism generates almost 10% of the world’s gross domestic product, or GDP. This contribution sustains significant employment. One in 11 jobs worldwide can be linked directly or indirectly to tourism, and here in Queensland, one in every 10 jobs is attributable to tourism. In developing countries, tourism can make even higher contributions to GDP and employment. But tourism is also important for other reasons.

Tourism can protect and restore sites of historic and/or cultural significance. Tourism can save endangered species and habitats. Tourism can also protect natural environments from more extractive industries. Tourism exposes people to different places,cultures and issues. Tourism fosters cross-cultural understanding,tolerance and peace. Tourism jobs can promote equity and equality.

Providing for tourists improves facilities that also benefit host communities. This includes transport, restaurants and services. Income from tourism raises living standards and helps to alleviate poverty. These benefits highlight the importance of tourism. There are however, many challenges and issues associated with tourism that need to be managed. 

Travelling features a peregrine urge in man ever since the dawn of human civilization. however the expansion of business enterprise has been fantastic notably when the Second warfare. business enterprise is AN ever increasing industry with latent Brobdingnagian growth potential and has, therefore, become one in every of the crucial considerations of not solely the nations however conjointly of international community as a full. In fact, it’s return up as a tool link in train up the pace of socio-economic development world over.

Thereby it’s return to weigh considerably within the growth methods of the developed countries as conjointly of the developing ones. business enterprise as a business could be a multi-sector and multi-faceted. it’s been recognized as “an activity essential to the lifetime of nations owing to its direct effects on the social, cultural, instructional and economic sectors of national societies and on their mediation.”

Business enterprise these days is one in every of the world’s quickest growing industries. it’s emerged as dominant economic forces within the world horizon. business enterprise business not solely works as prime interchange wage earner for countries, however it promotes international understanding and sense of brotherhood conjointly. Most of the countries have sought-after the solution to development through the holidaymaker recreation business by exploiting their historic, societal, cultural and environmental resources.

Emergence of business enterprise as a number one industry could be a a part of a gradual method involving the displacement of manufacture from its dominant position and also the transition to a service homeward-bound economy.

The term ‘smokeless’ business has become a platitude, however it’s doing all that a producing business will specifically, generating financial gain, employment, wealth, etc., that is, generating the ripple/multiplier effects, encouraging innovations additionally to satisfying human desires. Therefore, to find out concerning business enterprise, the primary step is to find out the weather and characteristics of business enterprise.

History of Travel and Tourism

Theobald (1994) advised that “etymologically, the word tour comes from the Latin, ‘tornare’ and therefore the Greek, ‘tornos’, which means ‘a shaper or circle; the movement around a central purpose or axis’. This which means modified in English language to represent ‘one’s turn’. The suffix –ism is outlined as ‘an action or process; typical behaviour or quality’, whereas th  suffix, –ist denotes ‘one that performs a given action’.

Once the word tour and therefore the suffixes –ism and –ist square measure combined, they counsel the action of movement around a circle. One will argue that a circle represents a place to begin, that ultimately returns back to its starting. Therefore, sort of a circle, a tour represents a journey therein it’s a round-trip, i.e., the act of deed so returning to the initial place to begin, and so, one WHO takes such a journey is referred to as a traveller.”

   History of Travel through the Ages within the starting travel was for the most part unconscious and an easy affair. individuals traveled by foot over methods, open fields as additionally forests. Movement across the landscape was powerful journey requiring nice skills and endurance. there have been no travel procedures and formalities as there have been no frontiers. All human action targeted upon day to day survival.

The first hunters were keeping themselves busy in search of basic wants like food, water and shelter. This typically meant troublesome and dangerous travel for entire communities. though travel within the prehistoric times was rigorous and unsafe, it failed to stop early individuals from migrating everywhere the world.

 it absolutely was but, within the Neolithic that many innovations were created that modified the character of travel. Around 4000 B.C. sailing vessels were in-built Egypt. it absolutely was additionally throughout this era that animals were domesticated and trained to hold and transport community members, tools and agriculture provides. Invention of the wheel throughout this era was additionally a crucial landmark that created movement of individuals to distant lands potential. The Sumerians fictitious the wheel around 3500 B.C.

Invention of the wheel had significantly reduced the burdens of travel as additionally distance. it absolutely was currently potential to travel many miles to new lands in search of fortune. Most early travel but wasn’t undertaken for the needs of enjoyment since the motive wasn’t to hunt any vacation from the work state of affairs. The first motive that the travel was undertaken was associated with trade, exchange of products, commerce and therefore the activities related to it.

The human within the ancient past was so a merchant and a businessperson searching for merchandise and fascinating in trade and commerce. There was, however, another kind of human, whose motive was apart from participating in trade and commerce. This human was pilgrim, a scholar in search of ancient texts and a curious wayfarer wanting forward to new and exciting experiences. Seeking information was his primary purpose for endeavor travel.

History of Travel and Tourism:

Travel and tourism has a long history that is as old as the civilization itself.  The patterns of early age travels were in search of green pastures, food gathering and further religion and trade. The instances of travel for special purposes did exist in the early medieval period. Accounts of Marco Polo’s world travel, Huensang, & Alberuni’s visit to India, Elizabethan travel in Europe are some of the early instances of international travel.

Travel History

During the early period, people with less disposable income mostly travelled for religious purposes and such travels centered on religious places for which basic accommodation such as dharmashalas were created. For traders, Sarai & Inn accommodations were created enroute. However, it was only religious places in early travel history and trade routes where accommodation units were made available for the overnight stay with food. This was the trend of type of accommodation and churches also funded scholars to travel for learning about religion and culture. 

Hospitality and tourism are very closely related to each other because of the requirement of accommodation and food services, when people were on travel outside their daily living area. Hospitality industry is one of the segments of the tourism industry which comprises accommodation and food services. Travelers in good old days had no choice to select any room or other services, whereas plenty of options are available for them to select a hotel room. 

1. Early Period of travel history

The history of travel Tourism can be traced out with the dawn of the civilisation itself, though the motives and patterns of travel have undergone significant changes over the years. From food gathering to pilgrimage to trade and then for recreation, enjoyment and adventure, travel motivations have evolved over the centuries. 

Instances of travel for trade during the early Mesopotamia Civilisation are evident. Sumerians invented the wheel and used animals to pull heavy wagons which helped them travel for trade to several places. Sumerians were also the first to build highways for smooth transportation of goods. ‘Silk Route’ is the well-known highway which extended from East Asia to the West up to the present day Turkmenistan. In the West Asia, people of different countries gathered together to honour the Greek God ‘Zeus’ at athletic meet after every four year. Greeks were probably the first people who made inns for overnight stay.

2. Travel history during the Medieval Period

In early history, human beings travelled for food and stayed for a short time, but in medieval time people started travelling to know different cultures and religions. Purpose of the travel was mainly for religious except at rare times for trade. A few wealthy people were funded by the State or churches to travel for educational purposes. In Europe, people were generally funded by churches to travel to holy city of Rome for religious purpose. During this medieval period, some made remarkable journey that brought a revolutionary impact that lasted for centuries. A brief account of some of these prominent travellers is outlined below.

  • Xuanzang (Huen Tsang). A Chinese traveler who travelled several places in Asia in the seventh century. He recorded all of his travel experiences in his book name ‘Journey to the West and India’ and ‘Great Tsang Records on the Western Region’. At present, these books are important sources to understand the history of the Central Asia and India. 
  • Marco Polo. A traveller from the city of Venice, Italy, Marco Polo started his journey at the age of seventeen with his father and uncle in 1271 A.D. He travelled by following the Silk Route after crossing Armenia, Persia and Afghanistan up to China and came back by sea route. Likewise he travelled second time and completed the circuit for second time. His book “Descriptions of the World” or “The Travels of Marco Polo” is undoubtedly the most influential travelogue about the Silk Route. 
  • Shankaracharya. Popularly known as Adi Shankar traversed length and breadth of the country from south to north, east to west by foot. As a philosopher, intellectual genius, his remarkable journey of the entire country happened before his age of just 32. He established four Peethas or Dhamas or holy places to revitalise the declining Hinduism. Selection of Dhamas in four corners of the country such as; Rameswaram in South in the State of Tamilnadu, Badrinath in the north in the State of Uttarakhand, Dwaraka in the west in Gujarat and Puri in east in the State of Odisha; he advised all Hindus to visit all four Dhamas in a lifetime. 
  • Al-Biruni. He was a great scholar of his times who travelled several countries like Greece and India to seek knowledge. He was from Kath, the capital of Afrighid; this is now part of Uzbekistan, Kazakistan and

Turkmenistan. Through his travel he wrote books like ‘Tarikh Al- Hind’ (History of India) after knowing about the religion of India and ‘Al-Ustad’ (The Master) for the description of early 11th century India.  

3. Renaissance and its Effect on Tourism and travel history

Renaissance was basically a cultural revolution in the Europe during fourteenth to seventeenth centuries AD. It was the time when people of Europe started moving out for learning based on cultural resource and educational reform.  The cultural movement brought a powerful cultural movement in Europe.

Masses started going out of their homes. Rich travellers used wagons pulled by horses as they kept guns and ammunition for safety. Inns developed by this time by locals alongside the roads to accommodate strangers overnight. Strangers were to share the rooms usually as there was no choice for single room. Travel remained difficult and dangerous and there were instances of pirates looting the travellers in both roads as well as sea routes.

Travel by sea was more dangerous than road. Merchants, soldiers, students and pilgrims’ alike used guns, swords and other ammunition for their safety. In Europe governments started issuing pass for the travel inside their territory or country as a licence that is known as visa in modern times. Travellers were of mainly two types as Coltman (1989) mentioned, first was the Elizabethan travellers who travelled for enhancing knowledge and experience. Second was the Pilgrim, who travelled for the religious purposes.

4. Industrial Revolution and Birth of Mass Tourism

Industrial revolution made people more comfortable with disposable income at hand give boost to the history of travel. Printing of the currencies made medium of exchange easier. People started having extra money to spend on travel and thus tourism flourished. Industrial revolution started in 1750 A.D and continued up to 1850 A.D. This revolution provided people with more leisure time for travel and tourism as machinery replaced human involvement.

Technology had a favorable impact in transportation sector. Modern railways and ships made travelling easy and faster for the people. It expanded the geographies of travel and made travel very cheap and comfortable. Development in transportation along with socioeconomic development of masses helped many to go outside their usual environment. 

In Europe wealth of middle-class increased and they were also educated which helped in increase in travel demand. During the period, three or four-week tour was considered as the Grand Tour but many preferred one day trip due to limited income. New forms of tourism and accommodation flourished to cater to the needs of expanding market, spa and seaside resorts became more popular by this time.

Attraction so far frequented by only wealthy tourists started getting middle-class tourists. Market structure was continuously going through rapid changes because of the demand for newer destinations. In Roman Empire famous destinations was Bay of Naples, and Baths. With the fall of Roman Empire, travel to Riviera, the Bay of Naples and Baths came to a halt. The old Roman baths were later used as Spas.

The word ‘Spa’ came from Belgium where a place was famous for its mineral spring. Some famous Spas in the world were Bains-lesBains (France), Lucca (Italy), Baden (Austria) and Bath (England) but in North America people loved to drink spring water and take bath as well for wellness. In Europe seaside bathing became popular in 1800s as people loved to take bath in sea. Gradually, spa and seaside resorts became famous for recreational and entertainment activity with invention of rail which connected these places.

After World War I (1914-18) the rich class of North America influenced the European market. They loved fashion and entertainment which motivated people of Europe to open such places. Naval ships were also used as modern ocean cruise liners.

During 1930s ‘Paid holiday’ became very popular in France and Britain. Tourists from North America and Europe started assembling in Riviera during summer as the rich and middle- class tourists arrived at seaside for getting their skin tanned in the Sun.

After World War II (1939-45), the world was in danger for tourism in terms of economic and political situations. It reduced the opportunity of travel overseas and even within the country. This War taught people to understand the importance of industrialization and development in the country. The end of World War II also created new infrastructure for the tourists to fulfill the requirement. The size of middle-class grew very fast during this time and tourism became part and parcel of life for the rich. Thus a huge number of tourists started moving outside for tourism in 1960s and grew continuously till 1980s. This exponential growth in tourism started being called as Mass

Tourism. After the War a huge development in the Air transportation and

Communication further helped tourists to go out for a longer distance. 

In nineteen centuries industrial workers were working for six days in a week to earn livelihood sufficient enough sustain daily needs. They did not have sufficient money to travel but industrial revolution and the evolution of trade unions and also evolution of democratic forms of government brought changes in the society. Workers were provided annual paid holidays to go out for leisure. Middle-class had sufficient disposable income to spend on tourism activities. Increase in travel during this time was only because of the availability of facilities like transportation and varied places of interests. Development in the technology of transportation also led to the increase in the movement of people. Both the rich and middle-class could travel in the same train. 

Also read Evolution and Development of Transport

Types of Tourism: Tourism depending upon size, forms, patterns, and nature can be classified into various types. The criteria wise classifications are outlined as below: 

Travel History

On the basis of number of persons

  • Mass Tourism – This is related to the pattern of large number of people travelling to a popular destination over a period of time for recreation and enjoyment.
  • Alternative Tourism – When a person, family or friends visit a newer destination for purposes unique to them and get first-hand knowledge about the destination, it is considered to be alternative tourism.

On the basis of nationality and pattern of travel 

On this basis tourism can be classified into three types, such as; International, National & Internal Tourism.   

  • International Tourism – It involves tourists crossing national borders. It may have two sub types as below
  • Outbound Tourism – When a person travels outside his own country for leisure, pleasure or business purposes, his visit is considered to be outbound tourism for his country of residence. 
  • Inbound Tourism – when a country receives residents of another country, they are considered to be inbound tourists.
  • National Tourism – It is the tourism of visitors in any country from within or outside of the economic territory of the country.
  • Domestic Tourism – When tourism activity takes place only within tourists’ own living country.
  • Internal Tourism – Internal tourism comprises of all travels happening within the country including residents’ travel (domestic tourism), non-residents’ travel within the country (inbound-international tourism). On the basis of purpose of travel
  • Business Tourism – When a person goes to attend meeting, conference and exhibition outside from their daily living area.
  • Sports Tourism – It refers to travel which involves either observing or participating in a sports event.
  • Adventure Tourism – Generally youth likes to go for adventurous tours like trekking, river-rafting and rock climbing.
  • Ethnic Tourism– when people travel to different places to know about their own roots, we consider them to be part of ethnic tourism. 

On the Basis of Special Interest

As tourists over the years become more selective, such special interest travel has emerged as distinct forms of tourism. These forms of tourism can be explained in marketing terms as niche segments and are alternative forms of mass tourism. 

  • Social Tourism – It is emerging form of special interest tourism for low income group.   The weaker section people aim to go to the tour in minimum services without expending their own money or expense very less. 
  • Ecotourism – It involves visiting undisturbed natural areas, which is affected by tourist very less. This type of tourism started before looking after environment benefits and loss.

 Scope of Tourism

From ancient time to present day, tourism sectors have got changed.  Now days this industry has developed well in manner. The Scope of tourism is vast can understand with the help of following points

  1. Tourism a basic need 
  2. Tourism and Transportation
  3. Natural environment and Tourism
  4. Culture and Tourism 
  5. Religion and Tourism 
  6. Tourism Products. 
  1. Tourism a basic need – Tourism is one of the basic needs of human being. Human being want to take rest wants to take rest and pleasure apart from his busy scheduled.  So he makes plan to rest from daily work and visit to many tourist places and try to get satisfaction and freshness.  It is also necessary for our health.  Through by tourism we get mantel satisfaction too. 
  2. Tourism as Product – The ‘Product’ may be defined as the sum of the physical, psychological satisfactions, provides to the buyer.  Marketing is the development of on product to meet the needs of the consumer and then employing the techniques of direct sales, publicity and advertising to bring this product to the consumer. 

 The tourist product is the country’s natural beauty, climate, history, culture and the people. Transport, accommodation and of entertainment which hopefully result in consumers satisfaction. Attraction, facilities and accessibility are three basic components of the tourist products.

  1. Attraction – It is one of the important factor, except the attraction, the tourist will not attract to particular tourist place.  The attraction is related to the purpose of tourist it means purpose is basic for attraction. The attraction could by geographical, cultural, historical, exhibitions arts and music festivals, games etc.
  2. Facilities – Facilities are those things in the tourist product that are a necessary did to the tourist place.  The facilities complement the attractions.  These include accommodation, mode of transportation, entertainments, recreation and many others. 
  3. Accessibility –It is another important component in the tourist product.  It is a means by which a tourist can reach the area where attraction are located.  If the tourist attractions are located at a place where no means of transport can reach or share there are inadequate transport facilities, these become of little value.  The tourist attractions which are located near to the tourist generating markets and are linked by a network of efficient transport receive the maximum number of tourists. 
  4. Transportation and Tourism- Transport is the backbone of modern economy. A quality network of transport leads to tourism development hence there is very close relationship between transport and tourism. A good transport system promotes tourism services at domestic as well as international level. It helps to earn foreign exchange. Transport and tourism development are interrelated. Hence substantial efforts should be made to improve the efficiency of transport. 
  5. Natural Environment and Tourism – This is also one of the important elements of tourism. Environment is a basic part of tourist. On the earth there are various tourist places with different environment background. Good environment, cool climate, good sunshine, etc. are the factors of environment so that tourist visit to many places according to environmental background. Tourist places like forest, hills and mountains, birds and wild  animals.   They fell satisfied, pleased when they visit such type of places. 
  6. Culture and Tourism – India has cultural background.  Tourist visits to tribal regions to know culture of tribal people.  These are original habitat.  Their culture has remained as it is; there life is closely related with natural environment.  They stay in the forest and away from the city area.  They use to collect various medicines from the trees of forest.  Their lives are changing due to contact with the outside world.  There are many tribes all over the world.  For examples
    1. Warli in Thane district
    1. Bhills in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat
    1. Santhals in Bihar
    1. Todas in Nilgiri region

These tribes have their own core, monies, festivals dance and music, people travel to these areas to study their lifestyles and this way tourist is encouraged. 

Forms of Tourism

       Generally there are two forms of Tourism

  • Domestic tourism
  • International tourism
Travel History
  • Domestic Tourism

     Domestic tourist are those who travel to their own country i.e. with in the boundary of the country in which he/she is residing. For example- Suppose you lives in Delhi and you visit Mumbai then you will count as domestic tourist and it is called domestic tourism. Because both the places are in the same country.

     Domestic tourism has also two forms

  1. Inter-region
  2. Intra-region

Inter-region:  Form of domestic tourism in which tourist travels to the region other than the region in which he/she residing but within the same country. For example Himansh lives in Guwahati and he plans to visit Delhi then his visit will be inter-region tourism.

Inter-region: The type of domestic tourism in which tourist travels within the region in which he/she residing in a country. For example, Someone is living in Chandigarh and visits Shimla the it will be the intra-region tourism.

Internation Tourism

         When a person travel from one country to another country it is called International Tourism. For international tourism one must have to cross the boundary in which he or she residing. For example- When someone visits a country other than the country he or she residing. 

       International tourism has further two forms

  1. Outbound Tourism
  2. Inbound Tourism

Outbound Tourism: When a person visits a country other than the country in which the person residing, then it is outbound tourism for the country in which the person residing. For example- Sumit visits America from India, then Sumit is a outbound tourist for India and Inbound tourist for America.

Inbound Tourism: When a person visits a country other than the country in which the person residing, then it is inbound tourism for the country in which the person visiting. For example- Samuel visits India from France then, Samuel is a inbound tourist for India and outbound tourist for France.

Importance of Tourism

Tourism has turned out to be the second highest foreign exchange recipient next only to oil. It provides not only foreign exchange but also brings various socio-economic benefits to tourists receiving country. The influence of tourism on the national economy is gradually more important now, for the reason that of the budding size of the tourist market.  

Tourism is an industry, like any other “Industry” and has to be planned and developed on scientific lines. To a developing country, tourism industry is an economic bonanza and is a treasured attribute to most of the nations. In their search for means, by which maximum rates of economic growth can be attained through tourism and it can be considered as the pivot of the vehicle for economic growth.

Also read Tourism Product Concept

The importance of tourism as a founder of economic growth is broadly accepted year after years throughout the world and a massive and growing torrent of investment money continues to pour in its development. International tourism and domestic tourism both have the same effect on national income, as both, national and foreign tourism, together create national income.

Tourism also helps in preventing the national income being hoarded by few and it leads to re-distribution of money among the larger community. Apart from economic development, tourism also plays an important role in national development. Tourism also interacts with several nation building activities.

Read more Sustainable Tourism

The national objectives of several nations can be more easily attained, if tourism is developed on healthy lines. It can also assist as an effective instrument for national integration. No other activity has such a great potential for breaking barriers of cast, creed and motivating linguistic groups to communicate with one another and to promote inter regional understanding, as the tourism has.

Tourism is also being accepted source of employment especially for the local communities. The aspect of provision of employment becomes more important in a developing country, where the level of unemployment and under-employment tends to be high.  

You may interested to read Interdisciplinary Approaches in Tourism

Some points of importance of tourism are as follows:

  1. The badly needed foreign exchange can be easily earned by tourism.
  2. Development of tourism projects a better image of the country and brings it in the light of the world stage which helps to promotes social and political understanding. 
  3. In many developing countries, governments are dependent for major proportion of its revenues from tourism.
  4. Tourism is an effective means of transforming the wealth from developed to underdeveloped areas, thus an instrument for removing the regional disparity of a country.

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